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Newman Projections

Probably one of the most useful tools for discussing conformation (a subject we have touched on) is the Newman Projection.


Decalins are the most important members of group of molecules called fused rings. The name, as it might suggest, applies to molecules which have two adjacent rings, which have two atoms in common.

Cahn-Ingold-Prelog Rules

These are rules that allow for the universal description of the geometries (and configurations) about stereocentres.

Stereoisomers of tartaric acid

Consider the following set of stereoisomers of tartaric acid (Please note the axial bonds are deliberately, and unnaturally, elongated to make the diagrams clearer).

Definitions in Stereochemistry

Having discussed some of the basic concepts of stereochemistry, it is necessary to understand some of the language used to describe stereochemistry.

Introduction to stereochemistry

We have already discussed the structure of chemical compounds, and how that relates to their reactivity. However, there is one important aspect we ignored; stereochemistry.