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# Fundamentals of Thermodynamics

### Internal Pressure

Consider a gas expanding into a vacuum. The volume is changing and the question is, how is the internal energy changing with the change in volume.

### Joule-Thompson Effect

Two absolutely critical properties of gas are its temperature and pressure. These determine the liquifying conditions of that gas. Joule and Thompson devised this experiment that shows how the temperature varies with the pressure.

### Heat Capacities

Since we have looked at both Cv and Cp already, now is a good time to compare these heat capacities.

### The First Law of Thermodynamics

As we said in the introduction, there are two ways in which we can change the Internal energy.

### Internal Energy (U)

The total energy of a system is called its internal energy.

### Introduction to Thermodynamics

We can break the universe into two parts, the system and the surroundings. The part we are looking at is the system, and everything else is the surroundings.