The normal modes of a molecule must belong to one of the symmetry species of the molecular point...

## Normal Modes of Vibration

Vibrations in molecules can be excited by the application of radiation at the same frequency as the vibration...

## Applications of Symmetry to Integrals

One of the most useful applications of symmetry is to the evaluation of various integrals. It is possible...

## Interpretation of a Character Table

The characters of the identity operation, E, reveal the degeneracy of the orbitals of each symmetry species. Thus...

## Character Tables

The symmetry properties of orbitals in polyatomic molecules are denoted by symmetry labels, which look like a, a1,...

## Polar and Chiral Molecules

There are some conclusions that may be drawn about a molecule as soon as its point group has...

## Key for Assignment of Point Groups

1 Is the molecule linear? Yes- Go to 2 No- Go to 3 2 Does it have a...

## Point Groups

The name of the group to which a molecule belongs is determined by the symmetry elements it possesses....

## Introduction to Symmetry

The symmetry properties of molecules and orbitals are extremely useful in a consideration of their properties. In order...

## Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Spectroscopy

This is a spectroscopic technique related to NMR that makes use of the fact that electrons also have...